Can An Employer Record Audio In The Workplace? (The Hard Truth)

The simple answer to the question, can an employer record audio in the workplace, is not cut and dry. But, people need to know their rights when it comes to being recorded and recording in a place they go to nearly every day — work.

Recording audio conversations becomes complicated because of the different state-by-state rules and regulations. The difference in laws creates the need to pinpoint each state’s mandates and how they affect you.

Can employers record audio in the workplace?

Let’s break down the answers to the big question, together.

Companies use the best security camera for business as part of risk management and training. They can only observe and record in places where there is not a reasonable expectation of privacy. Areas like locker rooms, dressing rooms, and restrooms are off-limits.

It leaves room to record common areas and workspaces for sensible reasons.

No doubt, a battery-powered security camera is more useful when there are microphones involved. And workplaces end up safer, and employees are more effective and productive. But the tradeoff for people’s privacy is not always an easy sell or that simple.

Security cameras are part of our daily lives. Businesses have them in their lobbies and elevators. So, of course, the evolution of recording only video to include audio is natural. But, it does not mean everyone is comfortable with the idea or that it is legal.

It is a good policy for companies to explain to potential employees upfront about federal and state laws regarding video and audio recording in the workplace and get their consent upon hiring them.

  • Tip: Informed consent limits confusion and the chances of future civil complaints and potential criminal litigation.

Legally, employers need to post signs around the office that make it clear that video and audio recording is a thing. When choosing to remain and interact in the area, employees are consenting to the process.

It is okay to record if it isn’t for criminal purposes. Companies also need a legit reason to monitor their employee’s audio. But, that’s where federal law pretty well stops. And, that is where state laws pick up the microphone.

Is it illegal to record someone at work without their knowledge?

Portrait Of Young Businesspeople Face Recognized With Intellectual Learning System

Recording devices are literally in the palms of our hands. And, it sort of takes away the concept of assumed privacy. Instances of people recording reported disputes and arguments in the workplace are on the rise. Some go so far as publicly post what they make a recording of, which is wrong for lots of reasons.

Legal and ethical questions come attached to the newest trend of making audio recordings in the workplace.

The conditions for recording others and being recorded are basically the same. In one-party states, you only need to consent to yourself to record a conversation.

  • Example — Recording a meeting between you and your boss

Toxic work environments are the primary reason people hit records in the workplace. Then he said, she said, aspect of disputes and litigation becomes irrelevant if there is audio proof.

But, you need to know your specific company’s policy about recording in the workplace. And, what if you get caught by fellow employees? Trust takes forever to build, but a moment to break.

It is never legal or ethical to record a conversation you’re not actively partaking in.

  • Example — Recording your boss and a coworker without your involvement in their chat

So, the answer to the question is yes, and no.

Defining Dense Language

Legal language is not altogether straightforward. Things can say one-party consent all day long, but if you don’t know the meaning, you’re still unclear about your rights.

Federal statutes allow for recording audio when one person gives permission. But, individual state rights overwrite that law.

Currently, 38 states have variations of one-party consent laws when it comes to recording audio.

The reason state and federal laws get confusing is because there are often exceptions to any given rule. Two-party consent means everyone in the recorded conversation knows about it.

Eleven states require every party in a conversation to consent to a recording.

But, here is the thing. Local, state, and federal laws change, and doing a quick look-up keeps everyone involved on the right side of the law.

Another valuable tidbit is that some laws are not altogether clear-cut. For example, Vermont does not have a statute directly related to recording in the workplace — unestablished consent.

In the same vein, a handful of other places have what they call “mixed consent”. The weird part is that state governments, lawyers, and citizens find it difficult to establish what is right or wrong because of the lack of case law in those various states.

Can an employer record audio at the workplace in Ohio?

We’ve covered that state laws supersede federal laws about recording in the workplace. In Ohio, though, the two mandates line up.

It is legal to record back and forth conversation with the permission of a single participant — the person recording it.

It is also legal for employers to keep their eyes and ears on employees in Ohio. If there is zero reasonable expectation of privacy, then employers have the freedom to monitor their workers with video and audio.

Best practices still exist for employers who record their workplace:

  • Post signage about monitored places
  • Alert existing employees and new hires
  • Have reasonable reasons for recording
  • Consult local attorneys

So, yep, and an employer can record audio in the workplace in Ohio.

Can I legally record a conversation at work?

Man observing an employee work via a closed-circuit video monitor

The last time, we promise, but it depends on the state you work. In some states, your consent is enough; in others, everyone involved needs to give permission.

In either case, recording a conversation you are not actively in is a no-no.

But, to shield yourself from criminality or civil actions, consider local and federal laws, too. And to avoid termination from work, consult handbooks, and human resources.

Sexual harassment and poisonous workplaces create the need for hard evidence. But, a frivolously hitting record on a cell phone or computer will create a hostile situation where there was none.


General tips and specific points are a good jumping-off point when thinking about recording others and when you are the recorded party.

  1. Recording other people in the workplace is not a norm, nor should it be. The temptation to turn on voice recording is at an all-time high because of the access to cell phones. Corrosive work environments are a reality, though. But, recording coworkers or managers should be a last resort.
  2. Do not record if you are only a bystander. Federal wiretapping laws prohibit recording others without their knowing. The one-consent state allowance only kicks in when you’re part of the exchange.
  3. Workplace policies are in place for employees and employers. Employees need notification when their bosses are recording them. And, employees need to know the policy about recording one another.
  4. State statutes are searchable. But, it is still safer for all involved to contact an attorney when activating the record option on your phone becomes necessary. Or, when deciding to utilize a 4k security camera to listen in on the workplace.

Know your rights and the rights of others in the workplace. Anytime there is a penalty of law at stake, careful is always better. Video and audio recording other people are a serious matter. Approach it legally and civilly to protect everyone involved.

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About John Fox

ebbb364ee14268bd3b77496cab3d1d78?s=90&d=mm&r=gCertifications: Certified Alarm Technician (CAT)
Education: Denver Security Academy
Lives In: Denver Colorado

John Fox has worked as a security consultant in Denver for over 20 years.
With Safe Now, he's taken those two decades of experience and decided to share it to help people online make the right security decisions for their businesses and families.

John writes security tips and guides, product recommendations, and prevention guides.

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